Atlantic Croaker

Life History

Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulates) are a bottom-dwelling species, in the same family as red drum and weakfish. They can be found from the Gulf of Maine to Argentina, but along the US Atlantic coast, they are most abundant from the Chesapeake Bay to northern Florida. Their name is derived from croaking noises they make during the spawning season by vibrating their abdominal muscles against their swim bladder. Atlantic croaker spawn in warm pelagic waters during the fall and winter months, and the larvae and juveniles settle in estuaries to mature. The Chesapeake Bay is an important spawning and nursery habitat for croaker. Most Atlantic croaker are mature by the end of their first year. They grow quickly and may reach sizes of over 20”. The world record for Atlantic croaker is 8 lbs 11 oz. The oldest observed age is 17 years, but it is uncommon to see fish older than 10 years in the catch.

Commercial & Recreational Fisheries

Atlantic Croaker

Total Atlantic croaker harvest from New Jersey through the east coast of Florida in 2014 is estimated at 10.08 million pounds. This represents a 75% decline in total harvest since the peak of 41.2 million pounds in 2001 (77% commercial decline, 72% recreational decline). The commercial and recreational fisheries harvested 70% and 30% of the total, respectively. The vast majority of landings are from the Mid-Atlantic region (97% in 2014), and the recent decline in total landings is a result of both commercial and recreational landings declines in that region, although some states showed increases in either or both sector. Commercial and recreational landings in the South Atlantic region have been generally stable over the last decade; however, 2010 showed large decreases in the recreational harvest. Recreational and commercial harvests in the South Atlantic region rose to 2.7% of coastwide harvest in 2014 from 2.3% in 2013.

Atlantic coast commercial landings of Atlantic croaker exhibit a cyclical pattern, with low landings in the 1960s to early 1970s and the 1980s to early 1990s, and high landings in the mid-to-late 1970s and the mid-1990s to 2011. Commercial landings increased from a low of 3.7 million pounds in 1991 to 30.1 million pounds in 2001; however, landings have declined consistently since 2003 to 7 million pounds in 2014, which falls below the 1960-2014 average of 13.45 million pounds. Within the management unit, the majority of 2014 commercial landings came from Virginia (49%) and North Carolina (37%). Maryland had the next highest level, with 7% of coastwide landings.

From 1981-2014, recreational landings from New Jersey through Florida have varied between 2.8 million fish (1.3 million pounds) and 13.2 million fish (11.1 million pounds). Landings general increased until 2001, and held stable from 2001-2006 before exhibiting a declining trend from 2007 through 2014. 2014 landings are estimated at 6.2 million fish and 3.06 million pounds. Virginia was responsible for 55% of the 2014 recreational landings, in numbers of fish, followed by Maryland (17.5%), and Delaware (5.8%). This is change from 2013 when New Jersey accounted for 11% of recreational catch, in numbers of fish. The number of recreational releases has increased over the time series, but appears to be in decline since 2008. In 2014, anglers released roughly 10 million fish, a decline from the 14 million fish released in 2013. Anglers released an estimated 62% of the croaker catch in 2014.

Stock Status

Atlantic Croaker

In May 2017, the Commission’s South Atlantic State/Federal Fisheries Management Board received the findings of the 2017 Atlantic Croaker Benchmark Stock Assessment and Peer Review Report. While the assessment was not endorsed by an independent panel of fisheries scientists (Peer Review Panel) for management use, the Panel agreed with the general results of the assessment that immediate management actions are not necessary. The Panel recommended continued use of the annual traffic light analysis (TLA), established in 2014 to monitor fishery and resource trends, and implement management measures as needed, for Atlantic croaker.

The Panel did acknowledge several improvements since the 2010 Atlantic croaker assessment, notably with regard to the estimation and inclusion of dead discards from the Southeastern US shrimp trawl fishery. Estimates of these discards indicate they account for a large majority of fish removed from the population annually (via directed and non-directed fishing activities) for Atlantic croaker. The Panel recommended continued monitoring of these discards and potential inclusion or consideration of these discards in the annual TLA conducted for Atlantic croaker.

A key issue causing uncertainty in the assessment results was the disagreement between recent trends in harvest and abundance. Trends in stock abundance for Atlantic croaker are estimated through several federal and state fishery-independent surveys. Typically, if these surveys catch a relatively large number of Atlantic croaker, that would indicate a greater number of Atlantic croaker available to be harvested by their directed fisheries. Thus, scientists and managers would expect a greater abundance of Atlantic croaker would also be reflected through an increase in harvest for that year. Similarly, a decrease in abundance would be expected to be coupled with a decrease in harvest. However, recent harvest numbers are declining while estimated abundance is increasing.

A similar trend is evident in the 2016 TLA for Atlantic croaker. The TLA assigns a color (red, yellow, or green) to categorize relative levels of indicators on the condition of the fish population (abundance metric) or fishery (harvest metric). For example, as harvest increases relative to its long-term mean, the proportion of green in a given year will increase and as harvest decreases, the amount of red in that year will increase. Under the Addendum II to Amendment 1 for Atlantic Croaker and Addendum I to the Omnibus Amendment for Spot, state-specific management action would be initiated when the proportion of red exceeds the specified thresholds (for both harvest and abundance) over three consecutive years.

Atlantic Coastal Management

Atlantic croaker are managed under Amendment 1 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Croaker (2005) and Addenda I and II (2011 and 2014). The Amendment does not require any specific measures restricting harvest but encourages states with conservative measures to maintain them. It also implemented a set of management triggers, based on an annual review of certain metrics, to respond to changes in the fishery or resource and initiate a formal stock assessment on an accelerated timeline if necessary. Addendum I revises the management program's biological reference points to assess stock condition on a coastwide basis as recommended by the 2010 stock assessment.

In August 2014, the South Atlantic State/Federal Fisheries Management Board approved Addendum II to Amendment I to the Atlantic Croaker Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The Addendum establishes a TLA to evaluate fisheries trends and develop state-specified management actions (i.e., bag limits, size restrictions, time & area closures, and gear restrictions) when harvest and abundance thresholds are exceeded. The TLA is a statistically-robust way to incorporate multiple data sources (both fishery-independent and -dependent) into a single, easily understood metric for management advice. It is often used for data-poor species, or species which are not assessed on a frequent basis, such as blue crabs in North Carolina and snow crabs in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

Additionally, in March 2017, a report on Sciaenid Fish Habitat was released including information on habitat for several species, including Atlantic croaker, during all stages of their lives, their associated Essential Fish Habitats and Habitat Areas of Particular Concern, threats and uncertainties to their habitats, and recommendations for habitat management and research. This report is meant to be a resource when amending future species FMPs.

Meeting Summaries & Reports

Board Proceedings

Technical Committee Meeting Summaries & Reports