Horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) are a marine arthropod found along the Atlantic coast from northern Maine to the Yucatan Peninsula and the Gulf of Mexico. The Delaware Bay supports the largest spawning population in the world. Adults either remain in estuaries or migrate to the continental shelf during the winter months. Migrations resume in the spring when the horseshoe crabs move to beach areas to spawn. Juveniles hatch from the beach environment and spend the first two years in nearshore areas.
Spawning usually coincides with the high tide during the full and new moon. Breeding activity is consistently higher during the full moon than the new moon and is also greater during the night. Adults prefer sandy beach areas within bays and coves that are protected from surf. Eggs are laid in clusters or nest sites along the beach with females laying approximately 90,000 eggs per year in different egg clusters.
The eggs play an important ecological role in the food web for migrating shorebirds. The Delaware Bay Estuary is the largest staging area for shorebirds in the Atlantic Flyway. An estimated 425,000 to one million migratory shorebirds converge on the Delaware Bay to feed and rebuild energy reserves prior to completing their northward migration.
Horseshoe crabs provide the backdrop for one of the most interesting marine resource management issues along the Atlantic coast. In addition to their role as a food source for birds, horseshoe crabs provide bait for commercial American eel and conch fisheries along the coast. Their unique blood is also used by the biomedical industry to produce Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL). The challenge of fisheries managers is to ensure that horseshoe crabs are managed to meet all these diverse needs, while conserving the resource for future generations.
From the 1850s to the 1920s, between 1.5 and two million horseshoe crabs were harvested annually for fertilizer and livestock feed. Harvest dropped throughout the 1950s and ceased in the 1960s. Between 1970 and 1990, reported commercial harvest ranged from less than 20,000 pounds to greater than two million pounds annually. Since the mid- to late 1990s, commercial harvest has been sold primarily as bait for the American eel and whelk pot fisheries. Increased need for bait in the whelk fishery likely caused an increase in horseshoe crab harvest in the 1990s, with a peak of nearly six million pounds in 1997. Reported coastwide bait landings in 2016 remained well below the coastwide quota at 787,223 crabs.
Commercial fishermen have adopted new gear such as bait bags and cups allowing them to effectively catch eel and conch while using as little as a tenth of the previous portion of bait per pot. The majority of horseshoe crab harvest comes from the Delaware Bay Region, followed by the New York, New England, and the Southeast regions. Trawls, hand harvests and dredges make up the bulk of commercial horseshoe crab bait landings. Discard mortality occurs in various dredge fisheries and may vary seasonally with temperature, impacting both mature and immature horseshoe crabs; however, the actual rate of discard mortality is unknown.
Horseshoe crabs are also collected by the biomedical industry to support the production of LAL, or Limulus amoebocyte lysate, a clotting agent that aids in the detection of human pathogens in patients, drugs, and intravenous devices. No other procedure has achieved the same accuracy as the LAL test. Blood from the horseshoe crab is obtained by collecting adults and extracting a portion of their blood. Most crabs collected and bled by the biomedical industry are, as required by the FMP, released alive to the water from where they were collected; however, a portion of these crabs die from the procedure. Crabs harvested for bait are sometimes bled prior to being processed and sold by the bait industry; these crabs are counted against the bait quota. Since 2004, when reporting began, biomedical use has increased but has been fairly stable in recent years with an estimated 426,195 crabs brought to biomedical facilities in 2016. The Horseshoe Crab Management Board continues to collaborate with the biomedical industry to find ways to incorporate biomedical data into a regional stock assessment.
A close-up view of spawning horseshoe crabs. Photo credit: Dr. Rob Robinson, British Trust for Ornithology.
Little is known about the status of the horseshoe crab population. Limited time-series of horseshoe crab population data make it difficult to assess its status. However, the 2013 stock assessment update indicates horseshoe crab abundance has increased in the Southeast (North Carolina through Florida) and remains stable in the Delaware Bay region (New Jersey through coastal Virginia). The New York and New England regions continue to see a decrease in abundance. These continued declines are being investigated by the Stock Assessment Subcommittee.
Horseshoe crabs are managed under the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Horseshoe Crab (1998) and its subsequent addenda (Addenda I-VII). Under Addendum I (2000), the Commission established state-by-state quotas in all Atlantic states for horseshoe crabs harvested for bait. Addendum II (2001) allows voluntary transfers of harvest quotas between states to alleviate concerns over potential bait shortages on a biologically responsible basis, with Commission approval. Addendum III (2004) reduced harvest quotas, implemented seasonal bait harvest closures, and revised monitoring components. In response to decreasing migratory shorebird populations, Addendum IV (2006) reduced quotas in New Jersey and Delaware and added additional protection in Maryland and Virginia to increase horseshoe crab and egg abundance in and around Delaware Bay. Addenda V and VI extended Addendum IV’s measures through 2012.
2013 marked the first year the Horseshoe Crab Management Board used the Adaptive Resource Management (ARM) Framework to set horseshoe crab harvest levels for the Delaware Bay area. The ARM Framework, established through Addendum VII (2012), incorporates both shorebird and horseshoe crab abundance levels to set optimized harvest levels for horseshoe crabs of Delaware Bay origin. For the 2016, 2017, and 2018 fishing seasons, harvest in the Delaware Bay area has been limited to 500,000 male horseshoe crabs and zero female horseshoe crabs. This total harvest is allocated among the four states that harvest horseshoe crabs from the Delaware Bay crab population (New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia). The allocation is based upon multiple decision options, including the proportion of horseshoe crabs harvested that originate from Delaware Bay and the allowance for additional male harvest by Virginia and Maryland to compensate for protecting females when the ARM harvest output includes a moratorium on female crabs. Since 2008, New Jersey has had a moratorium on horseshoe crab harvest despite its allocation of the Delaware Bay origin horseshoe crab quota.
In October 2017, the Board approved terms of reference, including tasks specific to the horseshoe crab stock assessment, such as assessments of regional populations of horseshoe crabs, incorporation and evaluation of estimated mortality attributed to the biomedical use of horseshoe crabs for Limulus Amebocyte Lysate production, and comparisons of assessment results within results from the ARM Framework. The results of these assessments are expected to be presented to the Board in October 2018.